NEW STUDIES ADDED
Title: Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields for Postsurgical Pain Management in Women Undergoing Cesarean Section
Location in PEMF Global Library: Pain Folder, Post-operative Recovery Folder
Applied Frequencies: 27.1 Hz
Available in: Omnium1 2.0, iMRS Prime
Abstract: To evaluate the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) in relation to reducing postoperative pain, analgesic use, and wound healing in patients undergoing Cesarean section (C-section).
Conclusion: PEMF treatment after C-section decreases postsurgical pain, analgesic use, and surgical wound exudate and edema significantly, and is associated with a high level of patient satisfaction.
Title: Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Promote In Vitro Neuronal Differentiation and Neurite Outgrowth of Embryonic Neural Stem Cells via Up-Regulating TRPC1
Location in PEMF Global Library: Stem Cell Folder
Applied Frequencies: 50 Hz
Available in: iMRS Prime Trial
Abstract: Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) can enhance hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice. However, little is focused on the effects of ELF-EMFs on embryonic neurogenesis. Here, we studied the potential effects of ELF-EMFs on embryonic neural stem cells (eNSCs). We exposed eNSCs to ELF-EMF (50 Hz, 1 mT) for 1, 2, and 3 days with 4 hours per day.
Conclusion: We found that eNSC proliferation and maintenance were significantly enhanced after ELF-EMF exposure in proliferation medium. ELF-EMF exposure increased the ratio of differentiated neurons and promoted the neurite outgrowth of eNSC-derived neurons without influencing astrocyes differentiation and the cell apoptosis. In addition, the expression of the proneural genes, NeuroD and Ngn1, which are crucial for neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth, was increased after ELF-EMF exposure. Moreover, the expression of transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) was significantly up-regulated accompanied by increased the peak amplitude of intracellular calcium level induced by ELF-EMF. Furthermore, silencing TRPC1 expression eliminated the up-regulation of the proneural genes, and the promotion of neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth induced by ELF-EMF. These results suggest that ELF-EMF exposure promotes the neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth of eNSCs via up-regulation the expression of TRPC1 and proneural genes (NeuroD and Ngn1). These findings also provide new insights in understanding the effects of ELF-EMF exposure on embryonic brain development.
Title: A detailed ethological analysis of the mouse open field test: effects of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and an extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic field
Location in PEMF Global Library: Anxiety Folder
Applied Frequencies: 0-500 Hz
Available in: Omnium1 2.0 & iMRS Prime (.5-28Hz), iMRS Prime Trial (all Hz listed)
Abstract: The open field test (OFT) is a widely used procedure for examining the behavioral effects of drugs and anxiety. Detailed ethological assessments of animal behavior are lacking. Here we present a detailed ethological assessment of the effects of acute treatment with the benzodiazepines, diazepam (DZ, 1.5 mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg), as well as exposure to a non-pharmacological agent, a specific pulsed extremely low frequency magnetic field (MAG) on open field behavior. We examined the duration, frequency and time course of various behaviors (i.e. exploration, walk, rear, stretch attend, return, groom, sit, spin turn, jump and sleep) exhibited by male mice in different regions of a novel open field.
Conclusion: Both DZ and CDP consistently reduced the typical anxiety-like behaviors of stretch attend and wall-following (thigmotaxis), along with that of an additional new measure: `returns', without producing any overall effects on total locomotion. The drugs also differed in their effects. CDP elicited a shift in the locomotor pattern from a `high explore' to a `high walk', while DZ mainly elicited alterations in sit and groom. The MAG treatment was repeated twice with both exposures reducing horizontal and vertical (rearing) activity and increasing grooming and spin turns. However, the anxiety-like behaviors of stretch attend and return were marginally reduced by only the first exposure. We conclude that a detailed ethological analysis of the OFT allows not only the detection of specific effects of drugs and non-pharmacological agents (i.e. pulsed magnetic field) on anxiety-like behaviors, but also permits the examination of non-specific effects, in particular those on general activity.
Title: Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation of Bone Healing and Joint Preservation: Cellular Mechanisms of Skeletal Response
Location in PEMF Global Library: Bone Density, Fractures, Breaks Folder, Joint Folder
Applied Frequencies: 60 Hz
Available in: iMRS Prime Trial
Abstract: The US FDA has approved pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) as a safe and effective treatment for nonunions of bone. Despite its clinical use, the mechanisms of action of electromagnetic stimulation of the skeleton have been elusive. Recently, cell membrane receptors have been identified as the site of action of PEMF and provide a mechanistic rationale for clinical use. This review highlights key processes in cell responses to PEMF as follows: (1) signal transduction through A2A and A3 adenosine cell membrane receptors and (2) dose-response effects on the synthesis of structural and signaling extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Through these actions, PEMF can increase the structural integrity of bone and cartilage ECM, enhancing repair, and alter the homeostatic balance of signaling cytokines, producing anti-inflammatory effects. PEMFs exert a proanabolic effect on the bone and cartilage matrix and a chondroprotective effect counteracting the catabolic effects of inflammation in the joint environment. Understanding of PEMF membrane targets, and of the specific intracellular pathways involved, culminating in the synthesis of ECM proteins and reduction in inflammatory cytokines, should enhance confidence in the clinical use of PEMF and the identification of clinical conditions likely to be affected by PEMF exposure.
Conclusion: PEMF dose-response effects provide a solid conceptual basis for clinical use. The local field of biological activity, as opposed to systemic effects, represents a notable advantage of PEMF together with a lack of negative adverse effects in relation to its efficacy. Despite its clinical use, the mechanisms of action of electromagnetic stimulation of the skeleton have been elusive, and PEMF has been viewed as a “black box.” In the past 25 years, research has been successful in Ruggero Cadossi, MD, et al May 2020, Vol 4, No 5 identifying cell membrane receptors and osteoinductive pathways as sites of action of PEMF and provides a mechanistic rationale for clinical use. Understanding of PEMF membrane targets, and of the specific intracellular and extracellular pathways involved, culminating in the synthesis of ECM proteins and reduction in inflammatory cytokines, should enhance confidence in the clinical use of PEMF and the identification of clinical.